Eme's Compendium

~Lebe, liebe und stehe dazu~

     Ladies Hairstyles & Headwear Worn in 13th Century Germany

Some Quick Notes About the Sources Used and the Time Period:

  • It was normal practice for artists and masters to make sculptures, drawings, illuminations, ect… of important persons many years, if not centuries after they lived.  When this was done it was also common practice to depict these individuals in the fashionable clothing of the time that their image was being created.  That is the case of many of the images to follow.
  • The Strasbourg Cathedral is located on the French and German border.  The sculptures from Strasbourg that are presented in this paper have been attributed to the German masters working on the cathedral.
  • The Rhineland or the Rhine Region is the name for the area in Western Germany that is on either side of the Rhine River.  It consists of the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.
  • Thuringia a state in Germany located in central Germany.
Glossary of Terms: 

  • Barbette:  A piece or band of cloth, usually white linen, that is worn under the chin and is fastened at the top of the head.

  • Coif:  A close fitting cap, usually made of white linen, worn over the head with enough room to wear hair in an up-do/bun style; usually has means of fastening at the base of the neck; and may be worn alone, but usually worn under otehr headwear.

  • Fillet:  A narrow band of fabric, usually white linen, that is worn around the top of the head; an open top hat of stiffened fabric, usually white linen, worn on top of the head.

  • Gauffered:  A decorative frill made by pressing pleats or ridges into the fabric, found on the trim or edge of fabric or garments.

  • Hair Net:  (aka: caul, snood, net) A net worn over hair that is worn pinned up; may be pouch like, the netting is often made of silk thread; it may be simple netting or have decoration. 

  • Toque:  A closed top hat worn by women that developed from the fillet; it is a brimless hat with a flat crown with upright sides; a pillbox hat.

  • Veil:  A fabric head covering used to cover a person's hair; veils did not have any one shape or length and were made of many fabrics, though white linen being the most prominently used; veils could be plain or decorated.

  • Wimple:  A head wrap/head covering or a veil, worn by women; it is made of fabric, usually white linen, that covers the head and it worn around the chin and neck.  There are many styles of the wimple that have been used throughout time.

c. 1200-1225 A.D.

 

Virgin Mary, c. 1200/1225, Church of Our Lady, Halberstadt, Germany

 This sculpture of the Virgin Mary, that is from the choir barrier at the Church of Our Lady, depicts Mary wearing her hair down in two braids. 

c. 1225-1250 A.D.

Virgin Mary, c. 1220/1230, Schnutgen-Museum, Cologne, Germany

 This stained glass window shows the Virgin wearing a crown with rectangular veil.

 Stained Glass, c. 1220/1230, Schnutgen-Museum, Cologne, Germany

 This stained glass window depicts a woman wearing a fillet (possibly a toque) with a barbette.  

Portal Sculpture, c. 1230/1235, St. Mary's Church, Gelnhausen, Germany

 This portal sculpture depicts Mary and two other women wearing their hair down in two braids.

Roof Relief, c. 1235, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

A woman that is shown in this roof relief is wearing a veil.

 Mechthild, c. 1235, Weschselburg, Germany

 Mechthild is wearing a barbette and fillet beneath a simple coronet. 

 

Shrine of St. Elisabeth, c. 1235, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

St. Elisabeth is wearing a wimple and simple fillet.

 

St. Elisabeth, c. 1235, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

Elisabeth is shown in this roof relief, wearing a “coffee filter” fillet, barbette and a hairnet.  Her hair is worn braided and pinned up at the back of her head.

 

Front Altarpiece, c. 1230/1240, Goslar Cathedral, Goslar, Germany

This altarpiece shows women wearing what appears to be veils that has been tucked and wrapped about their heads.

 

 

 St. Elisabeth, c. 1234/1249, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

Elisabeth is shown in these various pictures of stained glass depicting her life, wearing a decorated or folded fillet and a barbette; in some pictures Elisabeth is additionally wearing a veil.

 

St. Elisabeth, c. 1235/1250, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

Elisabeth is shown on this relief with various images depicting her life, wearing a fillet, barbette and veil.

Shield Holder of the Magdeburg Rider, c. 1240, Magdeburg, Germany

The Shield Holder from Magdeburg, Germany depicts a young woman wearing a circlet with her hair in a single braid. 

 Spear Carrier of the Magdeburg Rider, c. 1240, Magdeburg, Germany

The Spear Carrier from Magdeburg, Germany depicts a young woman wearing a circlet with her hair in a single braid.

 

Duchess Mathilde, c. 1240/1250, Braunschweig, Germany

Duchess Mathilde is depicted wearing a coronet over a veil and wimple.

 

St. Katherine, c. 1240/1250, Cathedral of St. Peter at Schleswig, Schleswig, Germany

St. Katherine is depicted wearing a crown with her hair free and loose.

 

Relief Sculpture, c. 1243, Mainz Cathedral, Mainz, Germany

This relief sculpture depicts a woman wearing a decorated fillet and decorated barbette.   It is possible that the decoration is a form of ruffling, but there is a clear line between the decoration and the fillet so it is probably a form of cording or a braid.

 

Virgin and Child, c. 1250, Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice,  Magdeburg, Germany

The statue of the Virgin is wearing a gold circlet over a decorated rectangular veil and a slightly larger simple veil beneath them both.  Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, it is possible the veil is decorated with a form of embroidery using gold thread on white linen.  The simple veil does not appear to be white and it could be made from a non-bleached heavy linen or light wool.

Vices and Virtues, c. 1250, Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice,  Magdeburg, Germany

This statue from the Vices and Virtues at Magdeburg Cathedral is wearing a “coffee filter” fillet with a barbette.

Foolish Virgin, c. 1250, Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice, Magdeburg, Germany

The virgins are one each of the set of Wise and Foolish Virgins at the cathedral.  The Virgin is wearing a decorated circlet, with her hair free and loose.

Wise Virgin, c. 1250, Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice, Magdeburg, Germany

The virgins are one each of the set of Wise and Foolish Virgins at the cathedral.  The Virgin is wearing a decorated circlet, with her hair free and loose.

 

Queen Edith , c. 1250, Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice, Magdeburg, Germany

Edith was Otto I first wife and Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire, her statute stands next to that of her husband, Otto I.  Edith is wearing a crown with her hair free and loose.

Gepa, c. 1250, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany

The statue of Gepa is wearing a gold fillet (notice the folding/crinkly under the weight of the veil and the obvious edge of the fillet), a gold barbette and a rectangular veil (probably a heavy linen or a light wool.)  Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, it is possible the fillet and barbette are decorated with a form of embroidery using gold thread on white linen.

 

Uta, c. 1250, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany

The statue of Uta is wearing her coronet with a gold toque (pill-box style hat) and a decorated barbette.  Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, it is possible the fillet is decorated with a form of embroidery using gold thread on white linen.  Uta was a married noblewoman and her hair is worn down and braided.

 

Reglindis, c. 1250, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany

The statue of Reglindis is wearing her coronet with a toque (pill-box style hat) and a barbette. Reglindis was a married noblewoman and her hair is worn down and braided.

 

Gerburg, c. 1250, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany

The statue of Gerburg is wearing her coronet with a gold fillet (notice the crinkling) and a barbette.  Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, it is possible the fillet is decorated with a form of embroidery using gold thread on white linen.  Her hair is worn in two braids that are tucked under her cloak.

 

Peter’s Wife, c. 1250, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany

The statue of Peter’s wife, depicting his renunciation, appears to be wearing a simple coif.  The sculptures a quite detailed at the Naumburg Cathedral, but it is still difficult to determine if this is a form of a coif (similar to the coifs found in the  Morgan or Maciejowski Bible.) Her hair is not visible due to the coif but is probably braided and worn up.

c.  1250-1275 A.D.

 

St. Katherine, c. 1230/1260, Central Rhine, Germany

St. Katherine is wearing a circlet or simple crown with her hair free and loose.

 

Nun or Foundress, c. 1251/1300, Thuringia, Germany

This drawing from religious documents that were possessed of Halberstadt monastery show a nun or the foundress wearing a fillet (that looks like that of Gepa from the Naumburg Cathedral)  and barbette.  Her hair appears to be braided in a single braid.

 

Virgin Mary, c. 1250/1260, Schnütgen Museum, Central Rhine, Germany

This statue of the Virgin wearing a short veil.

 

Adelheid, c. 1260, Meissen Cathedral, Meissen, Germany

Adelheid was the Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire, her statute stands next to that of her husband, Otto I.  She is wearing her crown with a barbette, a fillet across the crown of her head and a rectangular veil.

Stained Glass, c. 1260-1270, Town Church in Kühdorf, Germany

This stained glass window shows a woman wearing a decorated fillet and decorated barbette in what appears to be gold. Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, it is possible the fillet is decorated with a form of embroidery using gold thread on white linen.   Her hair appears to be in braids tucked beneath her cloak.

 

Effigy, c. 1263-1274, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

The effigy appears to be wearing a barbette and a veil, that possibly has gauffered edges.  The sculpture is worn but the edge of the barbette is visible from the front view.  Along the top of her head the veil appears to have gauffered edges.

 

Agnes von Leignitz, c. 1265, Stuttgart, Germany

She is wearing her an oval gauffered veil over a simple coronet.

 

Angel, c. 1270, St. Stephen Cathedral, Halberstadt, Germany

This sculpture of an angel is wearing a crown with her hair free and loose.

 

Anna, c. 1270, St. Nikolai Church , Stralsund, Germany

This sculpture that has been identified as Anna is wearing a barbette, a fillet across the crown of her head and a rectangular veil.   Her hair is worn loose and free.

c. 1275-1300 A.D.

        

Virgin Mary, c. 1251-1300, Folkwangmuseum, Essen, Germany

This sculpture shows the Virgin wearing a crown with a veil.

 

Virgin Mary, c. 1251/1300, St. Stephen Cathedral, Halberstadt, Germany

This sculpture is wearing a short oval or round veil and a coronet.  Her hair appears to be worn braided and up around her ears and the nape of her neck.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing what appears to be a veil that has been tucked and wrapped about her head.  It is possible that she is wearing a barbette but it cannot be seen because of the tucking/wrapping of the veil .

 

Queen Hemma or Emma, c. 1280, Braunschweig, Germany

Queen Emma is depicted wearing the following beneath her crown:   a barbette,  a fillet and a gauffered veil that is both round and short.  Her hair is worn braided and down.

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing an oval or round veil with a circlet over it.  Her hair appears to be worn loose and free underneath the veil.

 Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing a rectangular veil wrapped around her neck.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This sculpture is wearing a short oval or round veil beneath a coronet, her hair appears to be worn loose and free.

 

Wise Virgins, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

The statues of the Wise Virgins are from the set at Strasbourg Cathedral. All of the virgins are wearing veils and circlets.  The veil lengths and shapes, whether the circlets are decorated or simple and the position of the circlets and veil all vary.   These sculptures do demonstrate the use of short-long veils and veils that are oval as well as rectangular.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This portal sculpture appears to be wearing a wimple and a veil.  The veil may be wrapped around her neck.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing a coronet with what appears to be wearing a simple coif. Her hair is not visible due to the coif but is probably braided and worn up.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing a veil wrapped around her neck and over a coronet and what appears to be a simple coif.  The edge treatment of the coif is visible and  appears to be a form of seam binding or binding tape on the coif. Her hair is not visible due to the coif but is probably braided and worn up.

 

Portal Sculptures, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

 These sculptures from a portal in Strasbourg are wearing "coffee filter" fillets with barbettes.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

 

This statue is wearing a "coffee filter" fillet, "coffee filter" barbette and she  appears to be wearing a simple coif. The statues at Strasbourg are very detailed and because of this it is unlikely she is wearing a hairnet and this statue in particular shows the top of her head and even the pin holding her barbette in place. Her hair is not visible due to the coif or but is probably braided and worn up.

 

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This statue is wearing a decorated fillet, decorated barbette and coif or hairnet.  There are visibly clear lines between the base fillet and/or barbette and their respective decoration.  The decoration is probably a form of cording or a braid. There is a clear line to show where the coif ends and the smooth textures makes the distinction between hair and a material on the head.  Her hair is not visible due to the coif but is probably braided and worn up.

 

Portal Sculpture, c. 1280-1300, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France

This sculpture is wearing a coronet over a small rectangular veil and  a coif. Her hair is not visible due to the coif but is probably braided and worn up.  

 

Virgin Mary, c. 1286/1300, St. Stephen Cathedral, Halberstadt, Germany

This sculpture is wearing a short oval or round veil, barbette and a coronet.  The line of her barbette is visible under her jaw line, peeking out from the veil.

 

Virgin Mary, c. 1280, Westfälisches Landesmuseum, Cologne, Germany

This stained glass window shows the Virgin wearing a crown with a rectangular veil.

Coronation of Mary, c. 1280, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany

This sculpture of Mary is wearing a crown with a shoulder length rectangular veil beneath it.

 

St. Gertrude, c. 1280, Westfalisches Landesmuseum, Cologne, Germany

This stained glass window shows St. Gertrude wearing a wimple and a rectangular veil.  The hat is a style normally seen worn by men in the 13th Century and not woman.  It is also an older style of a miter and she is holding a crosier.  The red and white hat is probably not a hat worn by women of that time, but used to represent St. Gertrude's religious significance.

 

Mary, c. 1286/1300, Northern Germany

This statue of Mary is wearing an oval veil, that may be gauffered.

 

St. Katherine, c. 1290, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

St. Katherine is wearing a coronet with a toque (pill-box style hat), wimple and a veil.

c. 13th Century (1200-1299, Exact Date Unknown)

 

St. Elisabeth, c. 13th Century, Brandenburg Cathedral, Brandenburg an der Havel , Germany

St. Elisabeth is wearing what appears to be a veil that has been tucked and wrapped about her head.

Elisabeth, c. 13th Century, Augsburg, Germany

This mural shows Elisabeth (Mary’s cousin) wearing a decorated fillet, wimple and a veil worn wrapped around her neck. Embroidery was very popular in 13th Century Germany, the fillet is decorated with a simple design that is probably a form of embroidery on white linen.

 

Mary Magdalene, c. 13th Century, Augsburg, Germany

This mural shows Mary Magdalene wearing a wimple and a veil worn wrapped around her neck.

 

Hairnet, c. 13th Century, Elisabeth Church, Marburg, Germany

Above is what is believed to be the a hairnet of St. Elisabeth.

 

Illuminated Letters (A, I and O) from a Bible, c. 13th Century, Mainz, Germany

Above are several depictions of women wearing hairnets beneath crowns and circlets with their horn pinned to the side of their heads in braids.

 

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